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Paper Abstract and Keywords
Presentation 2022-06-16 13:00
The Birth of D-Region -- Necessity of Error Correction --
Kumon Tokumaru (Researcher) AP2022-29
Abstract (in Japanese) (See Japanese page) 
(in English) The fading and skip phenomena of middle wave radio broadcasting are explained as the D region of ionosphere exists only during daytime and disappear during night by losing inonization . The author exa mined the papers of E.V. Appleton who had given birth to the word “D Region”, and examine d the facts: (1) Ph.D. student Barnett constructed a hypothetical theory, and (2) Appleton named that theory as “D Region” without verification. The author proposes an alternative idea: t he inexistence of so lar noise enables the ionospheric reflective propagation during night , as radio wave is not deteriorated. “D Region” does not exist.
Keyword (in Japanese) (See Japanese page) 
(in English) Entropy / Ionosphere D / Fading / Skip / Forward Error Correction / Collective Human Intelligence / Information Theory / Searches  
Reference Info. IEICE Tech. Rep., vol. 122, no. 80, AP2022-29, pp. 1-6, June 2022.
Paper # AP2022-29 
Date of Issue 2022-06-09 (AP) 
ISSN Print edition: ISSN 0913-5685  Online edition: ISSN 2432-6380
All rights are reserved and no part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Notwithstanding, instructors are permitted to photocopy isolated articles for noncommercial classroom use without fee. (License No.: 10GA0019/12GB0052/13GB0056/17GB0034/18GB0034)
Download PDF AP2022-29

Conference Information
Committee AP  
Conference Date 2022-06-16 - 2022-06-16 
Place (in Japanese) (See Japanese page) 
Place (in English) Kikai-Shinko-Kaikan Bldg. 
Topics (in Japanese) (See Japanese page) 
Topics (in English) Antennas and Propagation 
Paper Information
Registration To AP 
Conference Code 2022-06-AP 
Language Japanese 
Title (in Japanese) (See Japanese page) 
Sub Title (in Japanese) (See Japanese page) 
Title (in English) The Birth of D-Region 
Sub Title (in English) Necessity of Error Correction 
Keyword(1) Entropy  
Keyword(2) Ionosphere D  
Keyword(3) Fading  
Keyword(4) Skip  
Keyword(5) Forward Error Correction  
Keyword(6) Collective Human Intelligence  
Keyword(7) Information Theory  
Keyword(8) Searches  
1st Author's Name Kumon Tokumaru  
1st Author's Affiliation Researcher (Researcher)
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Date Time 2022-06-16 13:00:00 
Presentation Time 25 
Registration for AP 
Paper # AP2022-29 
Volume (vol) 122 
Number (no) no.80 
Page pp.1-6 
Date of Issue 2022-06-09 (AP) 

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